Infectious Disease and Public Health Focus

The epidemiological triad of pathogen transmission defines the dynamic state of disease pathway. From the environment that promotes the exposure of a pathogen, a disease causing agent in the absence of a vector could be transmitted to a reservoir or host (Gordis, 2009; Schneider, 2010). In some cases, where the environment promotes or harbors environmentally-fit vectors, pathogens or disease-causing agents are transmitted to the reservoir or the host via vectors (Gordis, 2009; Schneider, 2010). Thus, within an “environment”, agents/pathogens with or without a “vector”, and a “host” are inextricably linked. The viability of a pathogen depends both on the intrinsic and the extrinsic factors. Naturally, organisms are equipped with the organismal mechanism in selecting the best-fitted traits for its environment/habitat. Continually, species undergoes micro-evolution, a state of micro-mutation occurring in a micro-level, a naked eye cannot see. The evolutionary state makes it possible for an organism to adapt and survive

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