HPV: The Uncertain Future

The human papilloma virus (HPV) is associated with the development of cervical cancer, genital warts and other cancers.  Although two HPV vaccines have been approved on the market: Gardasil in 2006, which protects against HPV-6 and HPV-11, and Cervarix in 2009, the vaccine applications are still limited to age barrier (WebMD, nd).  Gardasil is recommended as a routine vaccination for females aged 9-26 years old and for boys and men aged 11 to 21 while Cervarix, is recommended for use in females aged 10-25 years old. In the US, 20 million people are affected with HPV, and about 30 of the 100 HPV-types are transmitted sexually (Web MD, nd). Many epidemiological and experimental studies, indicated that 99% of cervical cancers contains HPV DNA, and four specific HPV types (6, 18, 31, and 45) cause at least 80% of diagnosed cervical cancers (Pagliusi, nd). World-wide, the prevalence of HPV infection ranges

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